DNA Signatures - Introduction

A DNA signature is some kind of family name for a pioneer. yDNA is transmitted by the father to his sons with almost no change furing about 10 generations so that the male descendants have a coherent signature with from time to time a random change or mutation, On a thousands years scale, these mutations help to identify a family.

Women have no yDNA. However, the mother transmits (except very not frequent cases) her mitochondries to her children. Those small organisms have their own DNA, called mtDNA, so that we can also get a DNA signature for our pioneers.

This catalogue has only triangulations. In each case, there are at least 2 documented family line to descendants who tested their DNA

The signature sheets

The first line of a signature sheet will identify the pioneer of the line. It is usually the pioneer or gateway ancestor, i.e. the person who was on the ship that sailed to the colony. This catalogue is about the colonials who left France so that the title is usually the ship's passenger, with his spouse and the year of marriage, sometimes accurate, sometimes approximate.

If brothers (or sisters for mtDNA signatures) came, and parents are known and both brothers have a living male descendancy, the title line has those parents. If parents are unknown, the title is about the brothers. The siblings have the code [+1].

In some cases, we have cousins. The Lemieux are all connected and there is one sheet with the name of the cousins. The Gagnon are on separate sheets, the common ancestor being unknown. In this case, the code is [+2]. Two Gauthier have a coherent yDNA signature.

The ideal triangulation is about 2 sons of the gateway ancestor. But, this is not always possible. For instances, the pioneer may have only one son, or his second sont has no son or grand-son. Sometimes, no descendant tested his yDNA. The code can look like [-1] meaning the triangulation can be improved. In June 2018, there were one triangulation with [-5] and seven with [-4].

The next part is the signature itself, that is an haplogroup which is a summary, and the haplotype with the details.

Follows the genealogical proof, i.e. the family lines. If the marriage occured before 1722, there is a link to the family sheet. Otherwise, only the family sheet number is given.

The bottom of the page has more details like the contributors and the DNA laboratory.

The mtDNA sheets have the same format.

The yDNA (or Y-DNA) signatures (fathers lines)

The haplogroup is displayed with two formats. The summary has the reference group (this will help you to find more details on sites like Eupedia) and the most recent mutation (or SNP) called apical or terminal.

The extended haplogroup shows the intermediate mutations (or SNPs) already published for this family. For exampe, the DNA of the author (Jarret dit Beauregard) had the terminal SNP presented as:

In this example, the summary is R1b-M269→Y41710, i.e. R1b which is decribed in the Eupedia web site, M269 which is the main mutation (about 40% of French men) and Y41710 which is the most recent mutation (or terminal SNP).

The haplotype is a series of STR markers that helps to identify this signature. The STR are statistical values (number of occurences of a given sequence) while the SNP are values measured in a specific position of the Y chromosome. The haplotype is used by FTDNA to find possible cousins.

Keep in mind that the STRs are derived. You can derive in both directions and this is random. The SNP are mostly definitive.

The mtDNA signatures (mothers lines)

The haplogroup is a summary of the signature. It may have many formats and can be estimated from a non-complete test.

A complete haplogroupe has a format like H7b6, each digit or letter being a modification of a previous haplogroup. So, H7b6 is a modification of H7b which a version of H7, a descendant of H. There can be many subgroups. Thus, there are H1 and H86, H1a and H1ae, etc. Also, there is HV as an initial letter. In some cases, the subgroup is named by adding or removing a SNP, which gives for example K1a-T195C! (deleted) or H5a1-T16093C (added).

The haplotype is the list of mutations or SNPs from a reference. The default values on FTDNA are based on the RSRS refernce, so that you can compare your results quickly. Another reference rCRS is used by many scientific papers and is defined as the mutation from the European Eve (or the haplogroup H). If there is no modification from the rCRS reference, the haplotype is displayed as CRS.

The haplotype is divided in 3 parts : HVR1 (Highly Volatile Region), HVR2 and CR (Coding Region). HVR1 is the top of the chromosome (positions 16000 and more) and HVR2 is in the bottom. CR is the middle part and is often considered as confidential. The haplogroupe can be estimated from only the HVR1 or HVR1 and HVR2. It is then not complete, usually shown as only one initial letter. In this database, only the HVR2 and HVR1 are shown.

Sources of signatures

This catalogue is based on (and replace) the catalogue maintained previously by Jacques Beaugrand who contributed with Doug Miller, Jean-Pierre Gendreau-Hétu, Denis Beauregard and many more contributors. Most triangulations are from this catalogue. The North American lines were all verified by Denis Beauregard.

Most signatures were obtained from projects at the laboratory Family Tree DNA or FTDNA. The author has a private access to this set of private information, so as to confirm the genealogical lines. If you manage a project, you can invite Denis Beauregard as a co-admin to add your lines to this catalogue. If you participate to a project, your signature could be grouped with other descendants. Each project is independant and you must join a project to be grouped.

The French Heritage Project (in the series of Dual Geographical projects), is the main project of Denis Beauregard. Beginning in 2003, this project has now over 8000 members.

The projects Québec ADNy and ADNmt focus on descendants of Quebec's pioneers.

There are more projects about Acadians (like Acadian Heritage), regions of France, family names, etc.

Fathers lines Mothers lines Introduction Methodology Adding your signature